Cost-Effectiveness of Vaccination of Older Adults with an MF59®-Adjuvanted Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine Compared to Standard-Dose and High-Dose Vaccines in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden
Jacob J, Biering-Sørensen T, Holger Ehlers L, Edwards CH, Mohn KG, Nilsson A, Hjelmgren J, Ma W, Sharma Y, Ciglia E, Mould-Quevedo J
Individuals aged 65 years and above are at increased risk of complications and death from influenza compared with any other age group. Enhanced vaccines, as the MF59®-adjuvanted quadri-valent influenza vaccine (aQIV) and the high-dose quadrivalent influenza vaccine (HD-QIV), provide increased protection for older adults in comparison to the traditional standard-dose quadrivalent influenza vaccines (SD-QIV). This study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of aQIV compared to SD-QIV and HD-QIV in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden for adults aged =65 years. A static decision tree model was used to evaluate costs and outcomes of different vaccination strategies from healthcare payer and societal perspectives. This model projects that compared to SD-QIV, vaccination with aQIV could prevent a combined total of 18,772 symptomatic influenza infections, 925 hospitalizations, and 161 deaths in one influenza season across the three countries. From a healthcare payer perspective, the incremental costs per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained with aQIV versus SD-QIV were EUR 10,170/QALY in Denmark, EUR 12,515/QALY in Norway, and EUR 9894/QALY in Sweden. The aQIV was cost saving compared with HD-QIV. This study found that introducing aQIV to the entire population aged =65 years may contribute to reducing the disease and economic burden associated with influenza in these countries.